Societies are membership organizations that may be registered for charitable purposes. A governing council or a managing committee usually manages societies. Societies are governed by the Societies Registration Act 1860, which has been adapted by various states. Unlike trusts, societies may be dissolved.

The Societies Registration Act governs societies, 1860, which is an all-India Act. Many states, however, have variants on the Act. Societies are similar in character to trusts, although there are a few essential differences. While only two individuals are required to form a trust, minimums of seven individuals are required to form a society. The applicants must register the society with the state Registrar of Societies having jurisdiction in order to be eligible to apply for tax-exempt status. A registration application includes the society's memorandum of association and rules and regulations. In general, Indian citizens serve as members of the managing committee or governing council of societies, although there is no prohibition in the Societies Registration Act against non-natural legal persons or foreigners serving in this capacity.

According to section 20 of the Act, the types of societies that may be registered under the Act include, but are not limited to, the following:

Charitable societies;

Societies established for the promotion of science, literature, education, or the fine arts; and Public art museums and galleries, and certain other types of museums. The governance of societies also differs from that of trusts; a governing council usually manages societies or managing committee, whereas their trustees govern trusts.

Individuals or institutions or both may be members of a society. The general body of members delegates the management of day-to-day affairs to the managing committee, which is usually elected by the membership. Members of the general body of the society have voting rights and can demand the submission of accounts and the annual report of the society for inspection. Members of the managing committee may hold office for such period of time as may be specified under the bylaws of the society.

Society, unlike trust, must annually file a list of the names, addresses and occupations of their managing committee members with the Registrar of Societies. Furthermore, in a society all property is held in the name of the society, whereas all of the property of a trust legally vests in the trustees.

Unlike trusts, societies may be dissolved. Dissolution must be approved by at least three-fifths of the society's members. Upon dissolution, and after settlement of all debts and liabilities, the funds and property of the society may not be distributed among the members of the society. Rather, the remaining funds and property must be given or transferred to some other society, preferably one with similar objects as the dissolved entity.

Societies are membership organizations that may be registered for charitable purposes. A governing council or a managing committee usually manages societies. Societies are governed by the Societies Registration Act 1860, which has been adapted by various states. Unlike trusts, societies may be dissolved. The Societies Registration Act governs societies, 1860, which is an all-India Act. Many states, however, have variants on the Act.

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Useful NGO Books for NGO Management

Handbook for NGOs by Nabhi Publications

NGO Handbook (In Hindi)by Nabhi

Formation and Management of NGOs: Non Governmental Organisations by Anita Abraham

Formation and Management of NGOs (Non Governmental Organisations) - Universal Publication

How to start promote and manageNGO by Xcess

Handbook for NGO's and NPO's by Taxmann Publications Private Limited

NGO & Training Centre in India by Mantri Pragada Markandeyulu

NGOs in India: The challenges of women's empowerment and accountability (Routledge Contemporary South Asia Series)

Management of NGO's by Laxmi Publications

Interesting Issues on Charitable Trusts or Institutions NGOS & NPOS a Complete Guide to Frequently Asked Questions by CA N Suresh

NGO Management: With Case Studies by Surendra Publications


Useful books for TRUST formation and Management

Formation & Management Of A Trust by Nabhi's

Formation and Management of Charitable and Religious Trust Educational and Medical Institution under Income Tax Law by Universal Law Publishing co

All About Charitable Trusts - Formation, Registration, Management & Taxation of CHARITABLE & RELIGIOUS TRUSTS (With Free CD) by CA Virendra K. Pamecha , CA Rakesh Nahar

Formation and Management of a TRUST along with Tax Planning by Nabhi Publication



Useful books for Society formation and Management

Formation and Management of Societies (Telugu) by Pendyala Satyanarayana

Formation & Managements Of A Society by Nabhi

Formation & Management of a SOCIETY by Nabhi New

Formation and Management of Societies by Y. Kameshwara Rao

Formation and Management of a Co-operative Society alongwith Multi State Co-operative societies Act & Rules by Nabhi Board Of Editors


Useful books for NGO fundraising

Funding of NGOs: How to Manage by Mahaveer & Sons

Taxation of Trusts & NGOs by Taxmann

How to Start & Promote NGOs & NPOs in India Starting, Management & Funding of NGOs /NPOs Covering Schemes of the Ministries of Government of India by Xcess Infostore Pvt. Ltd.

Nonprofit: Starting a Charity - How To Successfully Change Lives, Give Aid & Build a Community (Contribution, Not For Profit, Fundraising, Startup, Donation, Volunteering, NGO Book 1)

Fundraising: 10 Tips to Raise Money for Ngos, Small Business and Non-profits

NonProfit Crowdfunding Explained: Online Fundraising Hacks to Raise More for Your NonProfit

Fundraising Techniques and Financial Assistance to NGO by Anmol Publisher

Guide To Fundraising and Public Relations For NGOs and Non Profit Organisations by CSIM




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